Tunisia and Egypt: Music censorship after the Spring
‘The Cultural Spring’ in Tunisia and Egypt: Musicians are pushing the boundaries of artistic expression.
By Victor Salama
While some Arab countries saw political changes in 2011 – president Ben Ali was ousted from power after ruling Tunisia for 24 years, Hosni Mubarak was deposed after ruling Egypt for 30 years – many cultural and political boundaries still remain in place for artistic freedom.
In 2012, Egyptian authorities censored a song from a major blockbuster film. The music style was ‘electro chaabi’ – a new wave of electronica coming from Cairo’s poor suburbs and slums.
The Tunisian rapper Weld El 15 has been imprisoned twice since the Arab Spring. In 2013, another rapper, Klay BBJ, was imprisoned for six months in Tunisia for “insulting authorities in his songs”.
In 2014, French-Tunisian journalist Hind Meddeb started the TeMa Rebelle Festival as a way to bring together young socially conscious musicians from the Arab world – such as Cairo’s electro chaabi musicians, Weld El 15 and Klay BBJ – with their European counterparts, in the hope that they would meet and collaborate.
The 36-year-old journalist is a renowned urban contemporary Arab music specialist. She is also a veteran of the Arab underground music scene. Since the 2011 Arab spring or revolution, when tens of thousands of young Arabs marched across Tunisia, Egypt and other countries in the region, demanding more rights and rejecting dictatorships, Hind Meddeb’s work as a filmmaker dedicated to exploring difficult issues and amplifying marginalised voices has become significant.
“I’m fed up with Western media always portraying the Arabs with a niqab or as bearded terrorists. I want to show this youth as it is, with [Egyptian electro chaabi] songs like ‘I’ve Always Lived in Sin’, which tells about the life of those who don’t fast during Ramadan or don’t do pilgrimage in Mecca,” she says.
Under the slogan ‘From punk to rap – independence and freedom of speech’, the festival strove to highlight Tunisian and Egyptian artists who were pushing the boundaries of freedom of expression in their work at the FGO Barbara Cultural Centre in Paris on 21 February 2014.
Missy Ness, the first Tunisian female DJ, performed at the festival along with nine other artists, including Weld el 15 and Klay BBJ. Their performances were complemented by screening of film documentaries such as ‘Pussy Riots’, and ‘Electro Chaabi’, and panels discussing topics such as ‘Rap & revolutions’ and ‘The history of punk through the story of a punk’.
Concert as part of TeMa Rebelle festival | Youtube.com
Hind was inspired to start the festival after she met Weld El 15 while covering his arrest and his trial over the song ‘Boulicia Kleb’ (‘Cops are dogs’).
In 2012, Weld El 15 was beaten by the police and jailed for nine months, allegedly for smoking cannabis. In 2013, he wrote the song ‘Boulicia Kleb’, which then got him a two-year prison sentence. Thanks to media campaigns all over the world, he was released from prison in December 2013.
Hind Meddeb took this case to heart. She attended the trial and, when the verdict was out, she screamed: “Shitty country! Now I really understand what Weld said in his song.” This did not go well with the Tunisian authorities. Hind was expelled from court by police officers.
In November 2013, Hind Meddeb was sentenced to four months in prison – a comparatively light sentence, which was eventually suspended due her status as a French journalist.
Backstage before the TeMA Rebelle Festival started, on 17 February 2014, I conducted audio interviews with artists who sat around discussing the issues at hand in French.
Freedom of artistic expression has been touted the primary indicator of progress made since the Arab Spring in the Middle East. When the subject was mentioned, the tired but still mocking eyes of Tunisian rapper Don Emino shined. Smirking he said:
“What revolution? They killed the revolution. Weld took two years for his song. It’s the same old thing as during Ben Ali’s dictatorship.”
The conversation became animated. It shifted to politics and also shifted from French to Arabic.
“We still have the same taboos,” noted Weld El 15: “Freedom of expression hasn’t really improved. Well, a bit. Tunisians’ preferred topic of conversation now is politics, and that in itself is a huge accomplishment,” he added.
Electro chaabi – electronica from the margins
The 2003 terrorist attacks in Casablanca were a shock to Hind. She went to Morocco and directed her first film – ‘De Casa au Paradis’ (‘From Casa to Paradise’) which told the story of one of the suicide bombers. She then spent time in Lebanon, working on how political factions use music a propaganda tool. Most recently, she spent time in Tunisia and Egypt, where she had just finished a documentary about the music style electro chaabi:
Trailer published on youtube.com
Hind Meddeb came across this music in 2011, a couple of months after the Egyptian revolution. One of her Egyptian friends introduced her to an electro chaabi keyboard virtuoso named Islam ‘Chipsy’. He spurred her interest and she started meeting other figures from the less privileged parts of Cairo, talking to artists and audiences who were who were not usually covered in the media, due to their lower socioeconomic standing.
Hind was surprised by the freedom of tone and the variety of topics tackled. The music explored social taboos such as drinking which is forbidden in Islam, and also prominently featured political and social commentary, taking bold stances which were seldom expressed by other artists at the time.
The documentary helped to introduce electro chaabi musicians to bigger audiences. But as electro chaabi began gaining visibility on the mainstream stage, they found their work vulnerable to censorship. The 2012 Egyptian blockbuster ‘Abdo Mota’ featured an electro chaabi video clip as part of the soundtrack. The film had made the censorship cut. However, some talk show hosts pointed out that a line in the song mentioned Muslim saints, and that it was inappropriate to mention their names while bellydancers were dancing lasciviously. The producer and the musicians had to drop the line and create an edited version:
Published on youtube.com on 16 November 2012
Breaking new ground for women
Missy Ness shares the same interests and the same sense of curiosity as Hind. The pioneering DJ borrows deftly from many different music styles. When she first started mingling with the Tunisian musical underground scene in 2006, she soon discovered the Tunisian hip-hop. Since then, she has been busy working with Tunisian rappers and promoting them outside of Tunisia. She has been making history by being the first female DJ in a region, a country and an industry which are not reputed for promoting equal female presence.
At the festival in Paris, Missy Ness spoke frankly to me about the current state of freedom of expression in Tunisia:
“We went from a mafia-type dictatorship towards a religious one. We will find the right path somewhere between these two extremes. The fact that Weld el 15 has been detained for his song showed us the current limits and taboos in Tunisia. [Talking about] the police is clearly one of them. But at the same time, it gave us a target: we now know that this is where we should aim.”
Meanwhile, underground artists continue to push boundaries and illuminate blind spots in the cultural conversation. During Ben Ali’s presidency, no one would have heard about a detained rapper. Weld’s song went quicker and further than the political process: it showed the limits and to that extent has crafted a new and bigger space for freedom of expression.
Victor Salama interviewed Hind Meddeb in Paris in February 2014. Article in French language
Photo on top of this page: Lebanese rapper El Rass performing at the TeMA Rebelle Festival in February 2014. Photo from youtube-video uploaded by Campur
This story was commissioned by Freemuse, the leading defender of musicians worldwide and Global Voices for Artsfreedom.org. It was funded by a grant from CKU. The article may be republished by non-commercial media, crediting the author Victor Salama, Freemuse and Global Voices and linking to the origin.
Audio seminar about the complicated role art plays in the Arab region today
On 22 September 2014, Open Society Foundations organised a seminar about the social role which artists play in the Arab region today – advancing free thought, critical thinking and change.
‘Art and Conflict in the Arab Region’ is a 1 hour 26-minute audio recording of two presendations, first by Mr Oussama Rifahi, executive director of the Arab Fund for Arts and Culture, a leading independent funder of the arts in the region, and then by the Egyptian-Lebanese multimedia artist and photographer Ms Lara Baladi.
The two leading figures in the Arab arts world discuss the role of art and artists across the Arab region, particularly in the context of the political turmoil of recent years: How does the conflicts in the region affect cultural production?
“We are experiencing a very strong backlash on the Arab Spring in 2011 with new political turmoil, authoritarian regimes, religious extremism and conflicts. This is what artists are struggling with,” said Mr Rifahi:
“This is an extraordinary moment in time in our Arab region, and artists play an extremely important role. It is a very fluent and transitional period. The changing political situation we are living in is changing the rules of engagement of artists every day. Whatever we talk about today is going to become obsolete next week, next month. Artistic production is allowing us to see all this in a different perspective.”
Ms Baladi, who has worked as an artist in Egypt in more than 20 years, talked about how the development in Egypt has forced her to rethink the way she works: “When the revolution in 2011 started, I felt that everything I believed in was being questioned and challenged. Suddenly I participated in events which were much more collective and improvised.”
“It is very difficult to work as an artist at this time. It is a very strange time, asking one self: “Where are we?”, because I am not really sure where we are. When I am watching around me, and what I am also involving myself in, is to continue working with this archive which I have built since 2011, and taking this archiving as the possible act of resistance today.”
The two speakers were introduced by Anthony Richter, associate director of Open Society Foundations. The seminar was held in New York, USA.
» Listen to the audio recording on: www.opensocietyfoundations.org
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“Art is playing a greater role than ever before in the world.”
Kate Seelye, Senior Vice President, The Middle East Institute
Video published on youtube.com on 30 September 2014
On 26 September 2014 The Middle East Institute hosted a discussion about the growing impact and influence of the region’s increasingly dynamic arts scene, with rising Saudi artist Sarah Abu Abdallah, Stephen Stapleton, artist and director of Edge of Arabia, and Oussama Rifahi, executive director of the Beirut-based Arab Fund for Arts and Culture (AFAC), which provides grants to Arab artists. MEI Senior Vice President Kate Seelye moderated the event.